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Balanced Array
in an experiment the array of factors and levels must be balanced. To satisfy this there must be: 1. Equal numbers of levels in each column, 2. The Sum Product of each pair of columns equals zero (taking levels as '+' & '-').

Balanced Scorecard
A framework which translates a company's vision and strategy into a coherent set of performance measures. Developed by Robert Kaplan and David Norton (published in the Harvard Business Review in 1993), a balanced business scorecard helps businesses evaluate how well they meet their strategic objectives. It typically has four to six components, each with a series of submeasures. Each component highlights one aspect of the business. The balanced scorecard includes measures of performance that are lagging (return on capital, profit), medium-term indicators (like customer satisfaction indices) and leading indicators (such as adoption rates for, or revenue from, new products). (more)

Bartlett Test
A form of f-Test for more than 2 samples of data. Used for showing equal variances for normal data. Use Levene for non-normal data.

A definite quantity of some product or material produced under conditions that are considered uniform.

Bathtub Curve
The sum of all reliability failures over time (consists of the effects of early life failures, usefule life failures and wear out failures).

Bayesian Inference
A numerical estimate of the degree of belief in a hypothesis before and after evidence has been observed.

A continuous process of measurement of products, services and work processes, against those recognised as leaders.

Benchmark Data
The results of an investigation to determine how competitors and/or best-in-class companies achieve their level of performance.

Best Practices
Best practices are practical techniques gained from experience that organizations may use to improve internal processes.

A systematic error which contributes to the difference between a population mean of measurements or test results and an accepted reference value. It is the difference between the observed range of measurements and a reference (known) value. (more)

Bimodal Distribution
A statistical distribution having two modes - indicating a mixing of two populations such as different shifts, machines, workers, etc. (more)

Binomial Distribution
The distribution of a binomial response variable, one which has two possible outcomes - yes, no; pass, fail, etc.

Bill of Material
Total list of all components/materials required to manufacture the product.

B Life
Time at which x% of parts are expected to have failed. For example, B5 life = time at which 5% of parts have failed.

Black Belt
A leadership structure for Six-sigma process improvement teams. Black Belts are highly-regarded, technically-oriented product or line personnel who have an ability to lead teams as well as to advise management.

Block Diagram
The block diagram is a simple pictorial representation of a system/sub-systems linked to illustrate the relationships between components / subsystems. (more)

a technique used in classical DOE to remove the effects of unwanted noise or variability from the experimental response so that only the effects from the control factors are present in the response data.

Boundary Diagram
graphical illustration of a process or product and it's interfaces to other parts, processes, sub-systems and systems.

Box-Behken Design (BBD)
a form of response surface method.

A method to get ideas from persons who are potential contributors. No criticism or discussion of ideas is allowed until all the ideas are recorded. The ideas are critically reviewed after the brainstorming session.

Bulk Materials
Are products that do not have the characteristics of formed parts when received, but which become part of the product during the manufacturing process.

Bx Life
time at which x% of parts are expected to have failed. for example, B5 Life = time at which 5% of parts have failed.

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